Maintaining proper care of
your horse’s feet can have a critical effect on their overall health. Your farrier and veterinarian can advise you and
help establish a hoofcare program that will provide optimum benefit to the health of your horse.
1. Environment: No matter where your horse spends their day, the area should
be a safe environment, free of wire, nails, garbage, or any potentially dangerous debris that may injure the horse. Objects
such as sharp rocks, briars, nettles, and similar material should be removed from where horses congregate, feed, or rest.
Hooves are a good reflection of their
environment. For example, wet conditions produce soft hoof walls; dry conditions produce hard hoof walls, and dirty conditions
produce unhealthy hooves. Extremes should be avoided as much as possible.
2. Nutrition: The overall health of the horse may be judged by the condition
of the feet. Health problems are often first noticed in the feet. Your veterinarian can advise you on some feed supplements
that may help to grow healthier hooves. Topical applications to the exterior of hooves generally offer little benefit. Some
may build up on the wall and cause too much softening.
3. Handling: Foals should be imprinted for later life, by handling the feet shortly after birth.
All feet should be lifted and held immobile for several minutes, until the animal has overcome its fear of restraint and handling.
Older horses should be taught to stand quietly while all feet are handled. If restraint is necessary, the horse requires more
training. It is usually more affordable to hire a trainer than a farrier for this task.
4. Trimming: Excess hoof wall is removed to allow a natural way of going for the horse. Sometimes
trimming may be done in a specialized fashion, such as to alter the horse’s foot flight pattern, or the way in which
the hoof structure provides support to itself and the limb structures. Trimming often changes the appearance of the horse’s
feet and legs
Trimming should leave the foot’s
ground surface on a single flat plane, at right angles to its bone support column, and preserve natural angulation of the
Removal of too much wall causes th
horse to be sore or tender-footed. Removal of too little wall may cause angle and balance problems before another trimming
The trimming schedule depends
on several factors:
a. health of the equine (how fast
the hoof wall grows)
b. how much the horse is used ( how
much or how little of the hoof wall is worn away)
c. hardness or softness of the terrain
over which the horse is used
d. the kind or amount of use or activity
the horse endures
e. the relative durability of the
Unless some special circumstances dictate otherwise,
the average time between trimming is every six weeks.
5. Shoeing: Horses need to be shod only when specific conditions are met:
a. when wear exceeds hoof wall growth
b. to enhance athletic performance
c. as a therapeutic treatment to
minimize effects of disease, trauma, or disability.
As with trimming, time intervals
between having your horse shod will depend on several factors. For most horses, the elapsed time between a shoeing or a trim
are relatively the same.
Hoof wall tends to grow faster in
warm, moist environments. (A horse living in the tropics may need a trim a whole month before his Oregonian counterpart.)
Colder, drier climates retard growth
and may thus lengthen the time between treatments.
Traction devices, special pads, or
other appliances may sometimes be needed to sustain the useful life of your horse.Your farrier and veterinarian can help you
if such circumstances exist.
6. Disease: Several diseases of the horse’s foot may cause you and your horse problems.
While your farrier may be of great help to you, your veterinarian should always be consulted. Most farriers will provide prescription
shoeing. Horseowners should do all they can to prevent disease, at any cost.
Some common ailments:
a. Thrush: This is an infection of anaerobic bacteria that is most prolific in warm, dark, damp
conditions. Keeping stalls, paddocks, corrals, and feet clean will help to relieve the problem. Topical astringents sometimes
are helpful to combat and relieve the problem.
b. Navicular disease: This disease starts as a syndrome affecting the area around the
navicular bone, inside the horse’s foot. It can eventually effect bones, joints, and tissue within the foot. Careful
diagnosis by a veterinarian is necessary to confirm the disease. Trimming and shoeing to certain prescribed standards may
relieve the crippling effects of the disease.
c. Laminitis and Founder: The result of some systemic stresses, these most crippling of
problems can often be avoided by good husbandry practices. Trimming and shoeing may help to alleviate lameness symptoms.
d. Abscesses: This results when the sensitive foot structure becomes invaded
by a foreign object, and may lead to a festering within the live tissue. The horse experiences pain as pressure builds within
the tissue. Although technically not a disease, it should be treated by a veterinarian.
7. Other: There are several things to be aware of in order to provide proper hoof care for your
a. Whether or not you ride or use
your horse, the hoof wall grows constantly. You can’t put the horse aside, ignore its requirements, and not pay the
consequences in cost as well as risk of disability to the horse.
b. Look for evidence of neglect or
needed attention to your horse’s feet. Cracks, dishes, and flares, loose nails, loose shoes, shoes overgrown by hoof
wall or worn-out shoes are all indications that you need an appointment with your farrier.
c.It is not the farriers responsibility
to teach your horse good manners. A good trimming or shoeing job is a well balanced, cooperative effort between you, the farrier,
and most importantly the horse.
d. Don’t ask or expect your
farrier to perform medical treatment on your lame, injured, or diseased horse. That is the responsibility of your veterinarian.
e. You are responsible for the well
being of your horse. It can do nothing for itself to promote sound healthy feet. Your awareness of and proper attention to
the peculiar needs of the feet should keep the horse healthy and better able to meet your need for pleasure and performance.
Adapted from the American Farrier’s
Association’s Guide To Proper Hoof Care